In American legal history, changes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries began to expand women`s property rights; These changes concerned secret laws. A widow, for example, was entitled to a percentage of her husband`s assets (dowry) after her death, and some laws required a woman`s consent to sell property if it could affect her dowry. “The cases mentioned in the books in which a Feme Covert can take legal action as a Feme Sole are: When her husband is banished or has renounced the Reich or has been transported for a crime; where the husband is a foreign enemy and his wife resides in the empire; if the husband is a foreigner residing abroad and has never been in the Reich; or if he left voluntarily and has a disability returning; that is, where the husband has left the wife in a foreign country, and she goes to England and maintains herself as a female sole; where the husband in a foreign state forces his wife to leave him for another political jurisdiction, and she appears there as Feme Sole. Coverture was what Abigail Adams talked about in her famous “Remember the Ladies” letter to John, written in the spring of 1776 as he and the Continental Congress pondered what an independent America would look like. Contrary to popular belief, she did not ask John for the vote or what we would understand as “equal rights.” On the contrary, when she advised: “Do not put such unlimited power in the hands of husbands. Remember that all men would be tyrants if they could,” Abigail said of the absolute power that husbands kept hidden. Abigail even referred obliquely to the shame of physical violence when she suggested, “Why not remove from the power of evil and outlaws to use us with cruelty and humiliation with impunity (?)” For more information is an excellent book that gives the history of coverture and citizenship of American women: Kerber, Linda K. No constitutional right to be women: women and the duties of citizenship. New York: Hill and Wang, 1999. What I had just experienced was a vestige of the legal practice of concealment. John Smith) is also a representation of obfuscation, although it is usually symbolic rather than legal.

[65] According to the doctrine of concealment, the status of a single adult woman was called “Feme Sole.” She would be recognized as a person under the law and would be able to own property and sign contracts on her own behalf. In 1869, the cover was criticized when Myra Bradwell was denied permission to practice law in Illinois, particularly because of cover-up. [42] In 1871, Bradwell argued before the Supreme Court that the cover violated the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. [42] [f] According to Margot Canaday, “the main purpose of coverture is. was the legal subordination of women. [43] Canaday continued, “The legal subordination of women through marriage. has indeed been maintained via [Coverture]”. [44] “Ms.

John Smith” is mentioned by her husband`s name because her legal identity was literally subsumed by that of her husband when she married. It is important to understand where these traditions come from so that we can continue to treat women and men equally before the law. In the United States, many states have passed laws on the property of married women[51] to eliminate or reduce the impact of concealment. Nineteenth-century courts in the United States also enforced state private examination laws.